Fluorescent labels

Phyco Biotech is one of the few companies in the world specialized in the extraction and purification of phycobiliproteins, fluorescent labels of natural origin. We offer four types of phycobiliproteins:

Access to our markers :

In order to meet the expectations of our customers, we now offer these phycobiliproteins not only precipitated but also in lyophilized form. 
The advantage of the lyophilized form is to be directly soluble in the working buffer, while maintaining the spectral properties of pigments. It is a time saver we offer to users.

Phycobiliproteins, astonishing molecules

Description

Phycobiliproteins are natural polymeric proteins found in cyanobacteria, eucaryotic red algae and cryptomonads where they represent accessory photosynthetic pigments. Within the algae, they are comprised of stacks of phycobiliproteins organized around an architecture named phycobilisomes the natural light harvesting complexes.

Structure:

Phycobiliproteins are made up of a high molecular weight protein backbone to which open tetrapyrrolic chromophores are covalently bound.
The main phycobiliproteins are allophycocyanin (APC), the phycocyanins family (C-PC and R-PC), the phycoerythrins family (R-PE and B-PE) and phycoerythrocyanin (PEC).

Role

Within the phycobilisome, the phycobiliproteins are geometrically arranged in a manner that optimize the capture of light and energy transfer. Thus, they capture the incident light in wavelength domains poorly efficient for chlorophyll. By fluorescence cascade, this energy is transferred to the photosynthetic reaction center and to the chlorophyll a. 
This energy transfer chain within the phycobilisome is :
phycoerythrin -> phycocyanin -> allophycocyanin -> chlorophyll a.
 

Phycobiliproteins properties

The table below summarizes the main characteristics of the purified phycobiliproteins:

 

Phycobiliprotein

Absorbance Maximum  (nm)

Emission Maximum  (nm)

Molecular Weight

(daltons)

Molar absorptivity (cm-1.M-1)

Quantium

yield

R-PE

565, 545 (épaulement), 498

576

240000

1,96 x 106

0,84

B-PE

545, 565, 498 (épaulement)

576

104000

0,7 x 106

0,98

APC

652, 620 (épaulement)

660

240000

2,41 x 106

0,68

C-PC

615

647

220000

1,54 x 106

0,81

PEC

575

625

100000

0,85 x 106

-

Advantages of phycobiliproteins

Advantages of phycobiliproteins as fluorescent labels :

- High molar absorptivity and quantum yields
- Large Stokes shifts
- 100% water soluble
- Stable at a wide range of biological pH values (5 to 8)
- Conjugation to biological compounds such as antibodies and others proteins by conventional procedures without modification of their spectral characteristics.
- Excitation by common lasers such as helium-neon, krypton or argon.

The applications of phycobiliproteins

APC, APC-XL, R-PE and B-BE are fluorescent labels adapted to the following applications :

• Flux cytometry and cell sorting (FACS)
• Confocal fluorescence microscopy
• Gel electrophoresis labelling
• Size exclusion chromatography labelling
• Enzymatic labelling
• Immunohistochemistry
• Immunodetection
• Simultaneous multi-analytes assays
• DNA microarrays
• High Throughput Screening
• Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfert (FRET) assays 
• Homogeneous Time Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) assays.

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